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  1. 2010-10-28

    3-D Audio in Mobile Communication Devices: Effects of Self-Created and External Sounds on Presence in Auditory Virtual Environments

    This article describes a series of experiments which were carried out to measure the sense of presence in auditory virtual environments. Within the study a comparison of self-created signals to signals created by the surrounding environment is drawn. Furthermore, it is investigated if the room characteristics of the simulated environment have consequences on the perception of presence during vocalization or when listening to speech. Finally the experiments give information about the influence of background signals on the sense of presence. In the experiments subjects rated the degree of perceived presence in an auditory virtual environment on a perceptual scale. It is described which parameters have the most influence on the perception of presence and which ones are of minor influence. The results show that on the one hand an external speaker has more influence on the sense of presence than an adequate presentation of one’s own voice. On the other hand both room reflections and adequately presented background signals significantly increase the perceived presence in the virtual environment.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 11.

CVMP 2008
  1. 2010-10-26

    Effects of camera aperture correction on keying and compositing of broadcast video

    This contribution discusses the effects of camera aperture correction in broadcast video on colour-based keying. The aperture correction is used to ’sharpen’ an image and is one element that distinguishes the ’TV-look’ from ’film-look’. ’If a very high level of sharpening is applied, as is the case in many TV productions then this significantly shifts the colours around object boundaries with hight contrast. This paper discusses these effects and their impact on keying and describes a simple low-pass filter to compensate for them. Tests with colour-based segmentation algorithms show that the proposed compensation is an effective way of decreasing the keying artefacts on object boundaries.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 9.

  2. 2010-10-01

    Algorithms For Automatic And Robust Registration Of 3D Head Scans

    wo methods for registering laser-scans of human heads and transforming them to a new semantically consistent topology defined by a user-provided template mesh are described. Both algorithms are stated within the Iterative Closest Point framework. The first method is based on finding landmark correspondences by iteratively registering the vicinity of a landmark with a re-weighted error function. Thin-plate spline interpolation is then used to deform the template mesh and finally the scan is resampled in the topology of the deformed template. The second algorithm employs a morphable shape model, which can be computed from a database of laser-scans using the first algorithm. It directly optimizes pose and shape of the morphable model. The use of the algorithm with PCA mixture models, where the shape is split up into regions each described by an individual subspace, is addressed. Mixture models require either blending or regularization strategies, both of which are described in detail. For both algorithms, strategies for filling in missing geometry for incomplete laser-scans are described. While an interpolation-based approach can be used to fill in small or smooth regions, the model-driven algorithm is capable of fitting a plausible complete head mesh to arbitrarily small geometry, which is known as "shape completion". The importance of regularization in the case of extreme shape completion is shown.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 7.

  3. 2010-09-22

    Reflectance Transfer for Material Editing and Relighting

    We present a new approach to diffuse reflectance estimation for dynamic scenes. Non-parametric image statistics are used to transfer reflectance properties from a static example set to a dynamic image sequence. The approach allows diffuse reflectance estimation for surface materials with inhomogeneous appearance, such as those which commonly occur with patterned or textured clothing. Material editing is also possible by transferring edited reflectance properties. Material reflectance properties are initially estimated from static images of the subject under multiple directional illuminations using photometric stereo. The estimated reflectance together with the corresponding image under uniform ambient illumination form a prior set of reference material observations. Material reflectance properties are then estimated for video sequences of a moving person captured under uniform ambient illumination by matching the observed local image statistics to the reference observations. Results demonstrate that the transfer of reflectance properties enables estimation of the dynamic surface normals and subsequent relighting combined with material editing. This approach overcomes limitations of previous work on material transfer and relighting of dynamic scenes which was limited to surfaces with regions of homogeneous reflectance. We evaluate our approach for relighting 3D model sequences reconstructed from multiple view video. Comparison to previous model relighting demonstrates improved reproduction of detailed texture and shape dynamics.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 6.

  4. 2010-07-19

    Increasing Realism and Supporting Content Planning for Dynamic Scenes in a Mixed Reality System incorporating a Time-of-Flight Camera

    For broadcasting purposes MIXED REALITY, the combination of real and virtual scene content, has become ubiquitous nowadays. Mixed Reality recording still requires expensive studio setups and is often limited to simple color keying. We present a system for Mixed Reality applications which uses depth keying and provides threedimensional mixing of real and artificial content. It features enhanced realism through automatic shadow computation which we consider a core issue to obtain realism and a convincing visual perception, besides the correct alignment of the two modalities and correct occlusion handling. Furthermore we present a possibility to support placement of virtual content in the scene. Core feature of our system is the incorporation of a TIME-OF-FLIGHT (TOF)-camera device. This device delivers real-time depth images of the environment at a reasonable resolution and quality. This camera is used to build a static environment model and it also allows correct handling of mutual occlusions between real and virtual content, shadow computation and enhanced content planning. The presented system is inexpensive, compact, mobile, flexible and provides convenient calibration procedures. Chroma-keying is replaced by depth-keying which is efficiently performed on the GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT (GPU) by the usage of an environment model and the current ToF-camera image. Automatic extraction and tracking of dynamic scene content is herewith performed and this information is used for planning and alignment of virtual content. An additional sustainable feature is that depth maps of the mixed content are available in real-time, which makes the approach suitable for future 3DTV productions. The presented paper gives an overview of the whole system approach including camera calibration, environment model generation, real-time keying and mixing of virtual and real content, shadowing for virtual content and dynamic object tracking for content planning.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 4.

  5. 2010-07-16

    An Empirical Study of Non-Rigid Surface Feature Matching of Human from 3D Video

    This paper presents an empirical study of affine invariant feature detectors to perform matching on video sequences of people with non-rigid surface deformation. Recent advances in feature detection and wide baseline matching have focused on static scenes. Video frames of human movement capture highly non-rigid deformation such as loose hair, cloth creases, skin stretching and free flowing clothing. This study evaluates the performance of six widely used feature detectors for sparse temporal correspondence on single view and multiple view video sequences. Quantitative evaluation is performed of both the number of features detected and their temporal matching against and without ground truth correspondence. Recall-accuracy analysis of feature matching is reported for temporal correspondence on single view and multiple view sequences of people with variation in clothing and movement. This analysis identifies that existing feature detection and matching algorithms are unreliable for fast movement with common clothing.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 3.

  6. 2010-03-23

    Registration of Sub-Sequence and Multi-Camera Reconstructions for Camera Motion Estimation

    This paper presents different application scenarios for which the registration of sub-sequence reconstructions or multi-camera reconstructions is essential for successful camera motion estimation and 3D reconstruction from video. The registration is achieved by merging unconnected feature point tracks between the reconstructions. One application is drift removal for sequential camera motion estimation of long sequences. The state-of-the-art in drift removal is to apply a RANSAC approach to find unconnected feature point tracks. In this paper an alternative spectral algorithm for pairwise matching of unconnected feature point tracks is used. It is then shown that the algorithms can be combined and applied to novel scenarios where independent camera motion estimations must be registered into a common global coordinate system. In the first scenario multiple moving cameras, which capture the same scene simultaneously, are registered. A second new scenario occurs in situations where the tracking of feature points during sequential camera motion estimation fails completely, e.g., due to large occluding objects in the foreground, and the unconnected tracks of the independent reconstructions must be merged. In the third scenario image sequences of the same scene, which are captured under different illuminations, are registered. Several experiments with challenging real video sequences demonstrate that the presented techniques work in practice.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 2.

GI VR/AR 2008
  1. 2010-03-18

    GPU-based Ray Tracing of Dynamic Scenes

    Interactive ray tracing of non-trivial scenes is just becoming feasible on single graphics processing units (GPU). Recent work in this area focuses on building effective acceleration structures, which work well under the constraints of current GPUs. Most approaches are targeted at static scenes and only allow navigation in the virtual scene. So far support for dynamic scenes has not been considered for GPU implementations. We have developed a GPU-based ray tracing system for dynamic scenes consisting of a set of individual objects. Each object may independently move around, but its geometry and topology are static.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 1.

GRAPP 2009
  1. 2010-10-27

    Spare Time Activity Sheets from Photo Albums

    Given arbitrary pictures, we explore the possibility of using new techniques from computer vision and artificial intelligence to create customized visual games on-the-fly. This includes coloring books, link-the-dot and spot-the-difference popular games. The feasibility of these systems is discussed and we describe prototype implementation that work well in practice in an automatic or semi-automatic way.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 10.

VRIC 2009
  1. 2010-10-21

    Efficient Bimanual Symmetric 3D Manipulation for Bare-Handed Interaction

    Recently, stable markerless 6 DOF video based handtracking devices became available. These devices simultaneously track the positions and orientations of both user hands in different postures with at least 25 frames per second. Such hand-tracking allows for using the human hands as natural input devices. However, the absence of physical buttons for performing click actions and state changes poses severe challenges in designing an efficient and easy to use 3D interface on top of such a device. In particular, for coupling and decoupling a virtual object’s movements to the user’s hand (i.e. grabbing and releasing) a solution has to be found. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for efficient two-handed grabbing and releasing objects and intuitively manipulating them in the virtual space. This technique is integrated in a novel 3D interface for virtual manipulations. A user experiment shows the superior applicability of this new technique. Last but not least, we describe how this technique can be exploited in practice to improve interaction by integrating it with RTT DeltaGen, a professional CAD/CAS visualization and editing tool.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 8.

  2. 2010-08-19

    Virtual characters designed for forensic assessment and rehabilitation of sex offenders: standardized and made-to-measure

    This paper presents two studies pertaining to the use of virtual characters applied in clinical forensic rehabilitation of sex offenders. The first study is about the validation of the perceived age of virtual characters designed to simulate primary and secondary sexual character of typical adult and child individuals. The second study puts to use these virtual characters in comparing a group of sex offenders and a group of non deviant individuals on their sexual arousal responses as recorded in virtual immersion. Finally, two clinical vignettes illustrating the use of made-to-measure virtual characters to more closely fit sexual preferences are presented in Discussion.

    JVRB, 7(2010), no. 5.