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  1. 2014-12-01

    Estimating Gesture Accuracy in Motion-Based Health Games

    This manuscript details a technique for estimating gesture accuracy within the context of motion-based health video games using the MICROSOFT KINECT. We created a physical therapy game that requires players to imitate clinically significant reference gestures. Player performance is represented by the degree of similarity between the performed and reference gestures and is quantified by collecting the Euler angles of the player's gestures, converting them to a three-dimensional vector, and comparing the magnitude between the vectors. Lower difference values represent greater gestural correspondence and therefore greater player performance. A group of thirty-one subjects was tested. Subjects achieved gestural correspondence sufficient to complete the game's objectives while also improving their ability to perform reference gestures accurately.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 8.

VRIC 2010
  1. 2014-02-26

    Connecting Interactive Arts and Virtual Reality with Enaction

    This paper reports on a Virtual Reality theater experiment named Il était Xn fois, conducted by artists and computer scientists working in cognitive science. It offered the opportunity for knowledge and ideas exchange between these groups, highlighting the benefits of collaboration of this kind. Section 1 explains the link between enaction in cognitive science and virtual reality, and specifically the need to develop an autonomous entity which enhances presence in an artificial world. Section 2 argues that enactive artificial intelligence is able to produce such autonomy. This was demonstrated by the theatrical experiment, "Il était Xn fois" (in English: Once upon Xn time), explained in section 3. Its first public performance was in 2009, by the company Dérézo. The last section offers the view that enaction can form a common ground between the artistic and computer science areas.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 2.

GI VR/AR 2012
  1. 2014-12-09

    Application of Time-Delay Estimation to Mixed Reality Multisensor Tracking

    Spatial tracking is one of the most challenging and important parts of Mixed Reality environments. Many applications, especially in the domain of Augmented Reality, rely on the fusion of several tracking systems in order to optimize the overall performance. While the topic of spatial tracking sensor fusion has already seen considerable interest, most results only deal with the integration of carefully arranged setups as opposed to dynamic sensor fusion setups. A crucial prerequisite for correct sensor fusion is the temporal alignment of the tracking data from several sensors. Tracking sensors are typically encountered in Mixed Reality applications, are generally not synchronized. We present a general method to calibrate the temporal offset between different sensors by the Time Delay Estimation method which can be used to perform on-line temporal calibration. By applying Time Delay Estimation on the tracking data, we show that the temporal offset between generic Mixed Reality spatial tracking sensors can be calibrated. To show the correctness and the feasibility of this approach, we have examined different variations of our method and evaluated various combinations of tracking sensors. We furthermore integrated this time synchronization method into our UBITRACK Mixed Reality tracking framework to provide facilities for calibration and real-time data alignment.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 3.

  2. 2014-09-04

    Hands-Free Navigation in Immersive Environments for the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Indoor Navigation Systems

    While navigation systems for cars are in widespread use, only recently, indoor navigation systems based on smartphone apps became technically feasible. Hence tools in order to plan and evaluate particular designs of information provision are needed. Since tests in real infrastructures are costly and environmental conditions cannot be held constant, one must resort to virtual infrastructures. This paper presents the development of an environment for the support of the design of indoor navigation systems whose center piece consists in a hands-free navigation method using the Microsoft Kinect in the four-sided Definitely Affordable Virtual Environment (DAVE). Navigation controls using the user's gestures and postures as the input to the controls are designed and implemented. The installation of expensive and bulky hardware like treadmills is avoided while still giving the user a good impression of the distance she has traveled in virtual space. An advantage in comparison to approaches using a head mounted display is that the DAVE allows the users to interact with their smartphone. Thus the effects of different indoor navigation systems can be evaluated already in the planning phase using the resulting system

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 4.

  3. 2014-01-31

    Learning Two-Person Interaction Models for Responsive Synthetic Humanoids

    Imitation learning is a promising approach for generating life-like behaviors of virtual humans and humanoid robots. So far, however, imitation learning has been mostly restricted to single agent settings where observed motions are adapted to new environment conditions but not to the dynamic behavior of interaction partners. In this paper, we introduce a new imitation learning approach that is based on the simultaneous motion capture of two human interaction partners. From the observed interactions, low-dimensional motion models are extracted and a mapping between these motion models is learned. This interaction model allows the real-time generation of agent behaviors that are responsive to the body movements of an interaction partner. The interaction model can be applied both to the animation of virtual characters as well as to the behavior generation for humanoid robots.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 1.

GI VR/AR 2013
  1. 2014-12-19

    Simulating Wind and Warmth in Virtual Reality: Conception, Realization and Evaluation for a CAVE Environment

    Wind and warmth sensations proved to be able to enhance users' state of presence in Virtual Reality applications. Still, only few projects deal with their detailed effect on the user and general ways of implementing such stimuli. This work tries to fill this gap: After analyzing requirements for hardware and software concerning wind and warmth simulations, a hardware and also a software setup for the application in a CAVE environment is proposed. The setup is evaluated with regard to technical details and requirements, but also - in the form of a pilot study - in view of user experience and presence. Our setup proved to comply with the requirements and leads to satisfactory results. To our knowledge, the low cost simulation system (approx. 2200 Euro) presented here is one of the most extensive, most flexible and best evaluated systems for creating wind and warmth stimuli in CAVE-based VR applications.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 10.

  2. 2014-11-28

    Comparison of 2D and 3D GUI Widgets for Stereoscopic Multitouch Setups

    Recent developments in the area of interactive entertainment have suggested to combine stereoscopic visualization with multi-touch displays, which has the potential to open up new vistas for natural interaction with interactive three-dimensional (3D) applications. However, the question arises how the user interfaces for system control in such 3D setups should be designed in order to provide an effective user experience. In this article we introduce 3D GUI widgets for interaction with stereoscopic touch displays. The design of the widgets was inspired to skeuomorphism and affordances in such a way that the user should be able to operate the virtual objects in the same way as their real-world equivalents. We evaluate the developed widgets and compared them with their 2D counterparts in the scope of an example application in order to analyze the usability of and user behavior with the widgets. The results reveal differences in user behavior with and without stereoscopic display during touch interaction, and show that the developed 2D as well as 3D GUI widgets can be used effectively in different applications.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 7.

VRIC 2012
  1. 2014-10-15

    Virtual Reality as a Support Tool for Ergonomic-Style Convergence

    The competitive industrial context compels companies to speed-up every new product design. In order to keep designing products that meet the needs of the end user, a human centered concurrent product design methodology has been proposed. Its setting up is complicated by the difficulties of collaboration between experts involved inthe design process. In order to ease this collaboration, we propose the use of virtual reality as an intermediate design representation in the form of light and specialized immersive convergence support applications. In this paper, we present the As Soon As Possible (ASAP) methodology making possible the development of these tools while ensuring their usefulness and usability. The relevance oft his approach is validated by an industrial use case through the design of an ergonomic-style convergence support tool.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 5.

VRIC 2011
  1. 2014-10-21

    Collision Detection: Broad Phase Adaptation from Multi-Core to Multi-GPU Architecture

    We present in this paper several contributions on the collision detection optimization centered on hardware performance. We focus on the broad phase which is the first step of the collision detection process and propose three new ways of parallelization of the well-known Sweep and Prune algorithm. We first developed a multi-core model takes into account the number of available cores. Multi-core architecture enables us to distribute geometric computations with use of multi-threading. Critical writing section and threads idling have been minimized by introducing new data structures for each thread. Programming with directives, like OpenMP, appears to be a good compromise for code portability. We then proposed a new GPU-based algorithm also based on the "Sweep and Prune" that has been adapted to multi-GPU architectures. Our technique is based on a spatial subdivision method used to distribute computations among GPUs. Results show that significant speed-up can be obtained by passing from 1 to 4 GPUs in a large-scale environment.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 6.

CVMP 2013
  1. 2014-12-08

    A user supported object tracking framework for interactive video production

    We present a user supported tracking framework that combines automatic tracking with extended user input to create error free tracking results that are suitable for interactive video production. The goal of our approach is to keep the necessary user input as small as possible. In our framework, the user can select between different tracking algorithms - existing ones and new ones that are described in this paper. Furthermore, the user can automatically fuse the results of different tracking algorithms with our robust fusion approach. The tracked object can be marked in more than one frame, which can significantly improve the tracking result. After tracking, the user can validate the results in an easy way, thanks to the support of a powerful interpolation technique. The tracking results are iteratively improved until the complete track has been found. After the iterative editing process the tracking result of each object is stored in an interactive video file that can be loaded by our player for interactive videos.

    JVRB, 11(2014), no. 9.